What are stem cells and how can they be used within trauma medicine?

There are many stem cell surgeons that classify them as the fundamental elements of the future of regenerative medicine. These have the ability to become many different types of cells in the body and serve as a repair system for the body.

The immunomodulatory and regenerative properties they possess can treat heart diseases, brain and spinal damage, different injuries and cases such as multiple sclerosis or Crohn's disease.

It is a new weapon that has been shown to cure several pathologies and researchers continue to study the properties of what could represent a revolution in medicine.

What are stem cells and how do they work?

Stem cells are the raw material of the body through which all other cells with specialized functions are generated.

With the necessary conditions, whether in the body or in a laboratory, stem cells divide to form others that will become called daughter cells. This reproduction is carried out through a process of mitosis, that is, division into two cells.

A self-regeneration phase that leads them to become new stem cells or to acquire a more specific functional capacity, such as blood, brain or bone cells, among others.

The ability to divide and differentiate has caused biomedical research to currently have them as a point of study, thinking about the probability that they will become a treatment for many diseases.


Types of stem cells

In the body there are different ones. However, two different classifications can be established depending on where they are located or taking into account the ability to generate cells of different nature and function in the organism.

Depending on your location:

  • Adults: they can be extracted from any person regardless of their age and are found in specific areas of tissues and parts of the body.
  • Embryonic: they are found in embryos that are more than four or five days old and from them all the tissues and organs of the fetus are generated. As they have a high differentiation capacity, they are the most interesting from an experimental point of view, but ethical issues have led to their use being prohibited in most countries.
  • From the umbilical cord: hematopoietic cells are collected from its blood, which produce healthy blood cells. Mesenchymal cells are extracted from the cord itself, whose function is to regenerate and repair any type of tissue.
  • Amniotic: they are very active and are located in the amniotic fluid. However, they differ from each other less than the embryonic ones.

According to their potential to give rise to different types of cells:

  • Unipotent: they produce a single type of cell. An illuminating example is that of skin cells. As it is continually renewed, a fragment of undamaged epidermis can be extracted to grow cells that generate tissue for later transplantation to a patient who has suffered considerable burns.
  • Multipotent: they are in new tissues, from which it can be extracted that they have already undergone a first differentiation and continue to do so. They are suitable for tissue transplantation, because the chances of rejection are minimal.
  • Pluripotent: they generate any type of cell. They are not adult cells, but obtained from genetically reprogrammed cells. It could be said that they are very similar to embryonic cells.
  • Oligopotent: this type can only differentiate into a few cells.
  • Totipotent: they are practically embryonic since they are formed at the moment when the egg unites with a sperm to form the zygote. These give rise to any type of cell, organ and tissue in the body.


Main uses of stem cells in medicine

As we already mentioned, the possibility of carrying out medical treatments in diseases as diverse and, above all, difficult to manage in clinical practice as multiple sclerosis, diabetes or Parkinson's disease using a single source of cells, has become one of the milestones of medicine in this 21st century.

Today, stem cells are being used as an advanced procedure against certain pathologies.

Stem cell treatment for blood medical problems

To date, the most used stem cell treatment is blood stem cell transplantation for the cure of blood and immune system diseases and medical problems.

Specifically, the stem cells found in the umbilical cord represent a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells. These allow the production of blood cells such as leukocytes, which fight infection; red blood cells, which carry oxygen; or platelets, which facilitate blood clotting. In addition, they also generate red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

Leukemia studies

Leukemia is a term used to define a disease of the organs that produce blood and is characterized by the excessive reproduction of leukocytes or white blood cells in the blood and bone marrow.

Today, stem cell treatments for severe leukemias include hematopoietic stem cell transplants as well as bone marrow transplants.

Many leukemia patients around the world have successfully received this process. However, it carries risks that have decreased over the years as science has made progress in the discovery of blood stem cell treatments for leukemia.

Treatment of neurological diseases

Science also advances in the study of processes for the treatment of neurological diseases such as:

  • Parkinson's: to replace new neurons lost due to the disease.
  • Motor neuron disease: these are different diseases caused by damage to the nerve cells that control muscles. One of the solutions provided is the study of cells so that they can be used to repair the nervous system by growing new neurons and support cells.
  • Huntington's disease: science is trying, through pluripotent cells, to copy Huntington's disease and to observe how it progresses.


Trauma treatment with stem cells

He use of mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of herniated disc It has become a promising therapeutic strategy due to its regenerative, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties.

These treatments produce increases in cartilage density and meniscal tissue volume. However, something very characteristic is the decrease in pain and the improvement in joint mobility and functionality.

It is an essential process to repair bone injuries, for example in young patients who practice professional sports, in addition to being an alternative to implanting a prosthesis in older people.

Despite its high cost and presenting some side effects on certain occasions, many studies have proven the ability to regenerate and repair bone injuries, cartilage, tendons and even invertebral discs.

It is also worth highlighting the ability to modulate the secretion of pro-inflammatory substances, thus assuming a suppression of inflammation.

In this way, the trauma treatment with stem cells in Madrid It is becoming increasingly in demand thanks to the optimal results it provides. If you want more information about stem cells and their use, you can visit this link.

22 thoughts on “¿Qué son las células madre y cómo pueden usarse dentro de la medicina traumatológica?”

  1. Hello, I would like if it could be, you will explain to me about stem cells, in ankylosing spondylitis, if it works. Thank you very much, greetings

  2. Good afternoon.
    I have trochanteritis of both hips, I would like to know what treatment would be best for me. That of blood or marrow stem cells. I have them chronically and for a long time

  3. Hello, I have a spinal cord injury caused by compression of the spinal cord by a neoplastic tumor, which has been removed by surgery and the area has been decompressed. I have lost mobility in my legs and sphincter control. All this for 3 weeks.
    Can your treatments help me recover, even if it is partial?

  4. Hello. I have suffered osteochondral damage classified as a serious injury due to a sports injury. I have two fragments, I think of the condyle, loose in the joint space. After a month or so, in the south I have not rested until a week ago, I already notice pain relief and I hardly have any knee blockage. The first orthopedic surgeon who saw my image had a question about what to do considering possible osteoarthritis in the injured space, even assuming that the loose fragments could be removed by arthroscopy. Would stem cell treatment be indicated? All the best

  5. Good morning. My name is Francisco.
    I have osteoarthritis in my hip. I have almost no cartilage in my left trochanter. I am taking dexketoprofen continuously to be able to walk well.


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